The English Reformation after the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485).

Date Event Reign Abp. Canterbury Pope Contemporary events
1485 Wars of Roses ends.
Henry Tudor proclaimed King
Henry VII
John Morton
Innocent III 1484  
1490 John Colet (1467-1519)  leader of reform movement at Oxford, Dean of St Pauls.     Alexander VI 1492 1494 Sebastian Brandt publishes Narranschiff.

Melanchthon born 16 February 1497

23 May 1498 Savonarola  (1452-98) burnt.

1503-32 Margaret Tudor marries James IV of  Scotland.
Persecutions of Lollards begins.
  Henry Deane 1501-03. Wm.Warham
Pius III 1503

Julius III 1503

1509 Henry VIII marries Catharine of Arragon. Henry VIII
    Calvin born
10 July 1509

1510 Erasmus  publishes Praise of Folly.

Jacques Lefevre preaching  in Paris and at Sorbonne.

Wm Briconnet, Bp Meaux, reforming his see.

1513 Flodden. James IV Scotland killed.

1514 Peace with Scotland and France.

Richard Hun murdered.

Leo X 1513
1515 Thomas Wolsey Lord Chancellor
and Cardinal
      Teresa of Avila (1515-82) born. Spanish mystic, ReformedCarmelites. Mysticism
disliked  by  Church of Rome as it  does away with the priest.

Louis XII d 1 Jan 1515   Francis I King of France.

1516 Erasmus Greek Testament published.
 Sir Thomas More publishes Utopia.
1517 - 19         1517 Luther`s Thesis.posted at Wittenburg.
1518 Zwingli  preaches at Zurich.
1519 Erasmus publishes 2nd edn. of Greek Testament
1519 Alexander Barclay publishes Ship of Fools.

Beza born
24 June 1519.

July 1519 Luther rejects supremacy of Pope and infallibility of general councils.

Charles V, nephew of Catharine of Arragon, Emperor.

Zwingli begins preaching his "Evangelical Truth."


1520 Henry meets Francis I of France on "The Field of the Cloth of Gold" Calais. Achieves nothing.
Wolsey commits to support of Spain against France.
1520 Luther publishes Babylonish Captivity of the Church
1521 Henry VIII writes against Luther, given title Defender of the Faith. 1521 Luther at Diet of Worms commits himself irrevocably.

Luther Excommunicated.

1522 Luther pub. New Testament. in German

Lefevre has NT pub in French. Oct.

1523 Suppression of small  monasteries by Wolsey Adrian VI 1522
Clement VII 1523
Clement VI a reformer in Church of Rome.

Luther publishes translation of New Testament
21 Sept. 1523.

Zurich accepts Zwingli and "Evangelical Truth". Romanists rejected.

NT in French, one vol. pub at Meaux 12 Oct 1524.

1524-5 Widespread discontent leads to The Peasant`s War in Germany.

1525 Bulk supplies of forbidden books inc. Tyndale`s English New Testament just published.
Thos. Garret distributor.
21 Jan 1525, Anabaptists rejected in Zurich and create their own free church.

Psalms of David in French.

1526 11 Feb. Amid great pomp Wolsey and 36 bishops, abbots, priors supervise burning of  Tyndale`s New Testament at St Pauls,       11 June 1526, Luther married Catherine de Bora, a former nun.

25 June Diet of Speyers met.

1527 Henry VIII application to the Pope for a divorce. Charles V holds Rome.
1528 Henry VIII`s Oration to the People.

John Raimund or Ruremonde of Amsterdam pubr.1500 copies 4th Edn New Testament, Imported 500 to England.

      June-Sep Sweating sickness in England.2000 die in London alone.
1529 Sir Thomas More Chancellor. Break with church - first layman for ca 120 years.


      1529 Diet of Speyer, origin of title Protestant after `protestors` there.

Tyndale and Fryth pub. translations of  Genesis and Deuteronomy.


Thomas Hitton arrested and burnt 20 Feb.1530,for trafficking New Testament

Wolsey dismissed; dies 28 November 1530.

1530 Lutheran princes Confession of Faith made at Augsburg.

Defensive league at Smalkald.

1530 Antwerp Bible pub.

1531 Submission of the clergy.
Bilney burnt.

Richard Bayfield,  priest, monk, bookseller, degraded and burnt.

1531 Protestants vs Romanaists war - Zwingli killed at Kappel in October.

Oecolampadius d 5,11.1532 in Basle.

1533 Cranmer & Gardiner pronounce Henry`s marriage to Catherine null and void. Thomas Cranmer
1534 Papal Bull against divorce of Henry & Catherine of Arragon

9 June 1534 Papal authority abolished

First Reformed Primer published.

1534 Society of Jesus  founded by Ignatius of Loyola.(1491 or 1496-1556)
All Catholic ordinands pass through his Spiritual Exercises  - a 4 week retreat of meditation and instruction.

1534 First complete German Luther Bible at Wittenberg.

1535 Sir Thomas More exec.6 July.

Thomas Cromwell appointed Vicar-General,

First complete printed bible (Coverdale`s).

Visitations of the monasteries.

Paul III 1534
Calvin`s Institutes published.
Paul III  initiates reform of Church,

Calvin`s cousin Pierre Olivetan pub. Neuchatel Bible, basis for definitive Geneva Bible  in 1588.

1536 Suppression of  lesser monasteries
Henry VIII devises his Book of Articles.
 Injunctions against Holy Days.

Northern rising on religious issues.
Kings supremacy confirmed.

Wm. Tyndale (1492-1536) strangled and burnt at Vilvorde.

Erasmus dies

1537 Pilgrimage of Grace. Royal Licence to Matthews Bible.
1538 Pope excommunicates and deposes Henry VIII.
1539 The Great Bible (revison of Matthew Bible by Coverdale) pub. Suppression of all monasteries.
Act of the Six Articles.
1540 Thomas Cromwell executed
28 July.

Garret preacher & bookseller burnt

1540 Pope recognises Society of Jesus

1541 Clement Marot produces Psalms in metre.

1542 Calvin`s ecclesiastical polity  in Geneva.

1543 Tyndale`s translation prohibited. 1542 Inquisition revived in Italy, deterrent against spread of Protestantism.

20 more Psalms by Marot. Psalter pub. in Geneva.

1544 Introduction of English Litany
1545 The King`s Primer 1545 Ship Mary Rose sank
Council of Trent first session 1545-7;- the Counter-Reformation begins.
1546 Anne Askew and others burnt for denying- transubstantiation.

Many books prohinited  inc. Tyndale`s and Coverdale`s translations.

Death of Luther
18 Feb. 1546.

The Protestant Protectorate  1547-1553.

1547 Duke of Somerset Protector. Visitation of churches and Injunctions issued.
First Book of Homilies. Preaching of Latimer, Hooper, Ridley, Knox, Bradford.
Edward VI
1547-53 Peter Martyr at Oxford; Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius  at Cambridge.
1548 Introduction of English Communion Service.
1549 First Prayer Book  of Edward VI, and Act of Uniformity passed. Northumberland Protector.
1552 Somerset executed. Second Prayer Book of Edward VI. and Uniformity Act. Chantries  guilds etc suppressed. Julius III. 1550 Council of Trent, second main session 1551-2;
1553 The XLII Articles produced.

Within weeks of Mary`s accession many prelates replaced by those of the `true faith`.

Mary I
Servitus burnt by Calvin in Geneva.

The Catholic Reaction  1553- 1558.

1554 June.Wyatt`s insurrection 
July, Marriage of Mary and Philip of Spain  November. Reconciliation with Rome Surrender   to papacy.
1555 Southwark Commission (January). Martyrdoms begin (February).

 Latimer  and Ridley burnt at Oxford 15 Oct.

Marcellus III for 3 weeks.

Paul VI.1555

Frankfort dispute -emergence of `Puritans.`
Treaty of Augsburg
did not recognise Calvinism. leading to conflict especially in Germany.
1556 Cranmer burnt at Oxford (21 March) .

Seditious writings of Protestant exiles.

Cardinal Reginald Pole (22 March 1556-18 Nov 1558.) Paul VI a reformer in Church of Rome.
1557 Geneva Testament.
Famine and pestilence in England.

New Testament with numbered verse; Psalms pub.

Philip of Spain embroils England in war with France.  Charles V retires to a monastery.
1558 Death of Mary (17 November). Death of Cardinal Pole (18 November). Death of Charles V. England loses Calais.

Protestantism Re-established 1558.

1559 Royal supremacy restored. Second revision of Book of Common Prayer issued with Act of Uniformity.  Court of High Commission appointed. Statutes against heresy repealed. Elizabeth I
Matthew Parker 1559-75. Pius IV 1559 1559 Pius IV progresses first index of prohibited publicationa Tridentine Index published 1564.
1560 Scots Regent, Mary of Guise dies
Presbyterianism established in Scotland. Elizabeth supportive.

"Geneva Bible" published.

      1560 Death of Melanchthon.
1561 Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, returned to Scotland from France.

17 August 1560 Reformation in Scotland.

1562 Jewel`s Apology  for the Church of England published. Second Book of Homilies. 1562 Death of Peter Martyr.
Council of Trent third main session.

Wars of Religion in France 1562-95.

1563 Foxe`s Book of Martyrs published. Council of Trent closed. Confirmed direction of Church for many years to come.
1564 Advertisements concerning Vestments. Thirty seven London clergy decline to conform to clerical vestments. Death of Calvin
27 May 1564

1565 Beza`s Latin Testament published.

English college at Douai founded.

1567 Mary, Queen of Scots deposed; flees to England 1568.

1568 Bishop`s Bible published.

Miles Coverdale (1486-1568) died.

Pius V 1565 Persecution of Protestants by Alva in Netherlands (Spanish province),18,000 killed.
1569 Catholic revolt in North of England (in support of Mary, Queen of Scots).  
1570 Pope excommunicates Queen Elizabeth. Thomas Cartwright expelled from Cambridge .
1571 Philip of Spain and Ridolfi plot to put Mary, Queen of Scots on the throne of England.
Severe laws against Catholics. Elizabeth sanctions the XXXIX Articles .
1572 Parliament demands death of Mary, Queen of  Scots.(exec. 1587).

Knox dies, 24 November 1572.

Gregory XIII, 1572. St Bartholomew`s Day Massacre -
24 August 1572.


1576 Bible banned by Abp Parker. (amended side Notes).       1576 Catholic League in Europe led by Guise family. Machinations to aid Mary QoS.

1578 Roman Catholic revision Louvain Bible pub.

1579  Seven northern provinces of Netherlands unite to form Dutch Republic.

1581 Law against Recusants following influx of Jesuits. Edmund Grindel 1576-83
1582 Throckmorton`s plot to kill Elizabeth and reinstate papal rule.
Court of High Commission pursues Puritans.
1582 Gregorian Calendar introduced.

Roman Catholic trans. Rheims -Douai Bible.(NT Rheims 1582; OT Douai 1609-10).

1584     John Whitgift 1583-1604.   James VI Scotland asserts Divine Right and his supremacy of the church in Scotland.
1586 Babington`s plot in support of Mary, Queen of Scots. Sixtus V 1585
1587 Mary, Queen of Scots, executed.18 Feb.
1588 Spanish Armada defeated. Definitive Geneva Bible pub.
1598         1593-1600 Irish rebellions under O`Neill, Earl of Tyrone.
1593 Henry IV of France becomes Catholic.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) born
1598 Edict of Nantes French Protestants guaranteed religious freedom (until 1685 when revoked by Louis XIV and persecution of the Huguenots ).
1599-1602 Irish revolt, Essex fails to resolve it.  Mountjoy succeeds.

1601 Elizabethan Poor Law.
Urban VII 1590
Gregory XIV 1590
Innocent IX 1591
Clement VIII 1592
1600 English East India Company founded.
1602 Dutch East India Company founded.
1603 Elizabeth I dies. James Stuart, VI of Scotland and I of England.

Great Britain formed Protestantism secured but Divine Right policies of Stuart Kings exacerbate religious issues .

Millenary Petition.

1604 Hampton Court Conference. Puritans disappointed.

1685 Charles II dies a papist.
1685-8 James II tries to reintroduce papacy first by stealth, then  imposition. Results in  the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688-90.


James VI/I Richard Bancroft
1604 -10
George Abbot 1611-33
William Laud 1633 -45
Wm, Juxon 1660-63
Gilbert Sheldon 1663-70
Wm. Sancroft 1678-90
John Tillotson 1691-94
Thos Tenison
1622 Gregory  XV founded Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith aka the Propaganda. Seeks to bring Catholic Missions under Vatican control.

Blaise Pascal (1623 -1662) Religious thinker.-truth through the heart.
Letters published as "Thoughts" (Pensees)






Political events in Europe 1493-1621

Time Line for Scotland 1600-1837.

Last amended 18/07/2011

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