Chronology of the Reformation in Europe.

1175           Peter Waldo of Lyons, and his `Poor Men`.

1180           First translation of New Testament into Romault,
                   made available by Waldo.

1184          Pope Lucius III decreed bishops to hold inquisition and 
                  heretics handed to secular power for punishment. Pattern
                  for the future.

1275          Inquisitor Reynerius alleges heresy against Waldensians.

1332          Inquisitors in the valleys of  Lucarna and Perosa.

1378-1410 "Great Schism" of Roman Church (three Popes).

1483.          Birth of Luther, November 10.

1484.          Birth of Zwingli, January 1.

1487-9        Innocent VIII acts against Waldensians, led by Cataneo
                   who is twice defeated.  3000 Waldensians suffocated
                   by smoke in a cavern in Vale de Loyse  in assault by La

1497.          Birth of Melanchthon, February 16.

1500.          Birth of Charles V. February 24.
                   The Adagia of Erasmus published.

1501.           Luther matriculated at Erfurt.
                    Zwingli matriculated at Basle.

1503.           Death of Alexander VI, August 18.
                    Election of Julius II, October 3!.
                    Luther takes MA. at Erfurt.
                    Enters Augustinian convent, July 17.

1506-I6.       Zwingli parish priest at Glarus.

1507.           Luther ordained priest.

1508.            Luther sent to the University of Wittenberg
                    The Chilides Adagiorum of Erasmus printed
            League of Cambray, December 10.

1509             Birth of Calvin. July 10.

1510.            Bull Liquet omnibus, January 11.
                    Julius II comes to terms with Venice.
                    William Farel in Paris, disciple of Jacques Lefevre.

1511            Erasmus teaches Greek at Cambridge.
 The Encomium Moriae published.
 Opening of the 2nd Council of Pisa,
 Luther sent to Rome, October,

1512.           Opening of the 5th Lateran Council.
                    Luther a Doctor of Theology, October 19.
                    Lefevre preaching reformation in France.
                    William Briconnet,Bp. of Meaux reforming his see,

1513.           Death of Julius II, February 20.
                    Election of Leo X, April 11.
                    Luther lectures on the Psalms.
                    Denmark refuses to acknowledge Christopher II.

1515.           Accession of Francis I
                    Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum.
                    Arcimboldus papal legate in Sweden.

1516.           Erasmusís Greek Testament published at Basle,
                    Luther lectures on Romans and Galatians.

1516-18.      Zwingli peopleís priest at Einsiedeln.

1517.           Leo X closes the 5th Lateran Council, March 16.
                    Publication of Lutherís 95 Theses, October 31.
                    Complutensian Greek Testament completed.

1518.           Lutherís humble appeal to Leo X, May.
                    Luther before Cajetan at Augsburg, October.

1519.           Death of the Emperor Maximilian, January 19.
                    Lutherís submissive letter to Leo X, March 3.
                    Birth of Beza, June 24.
                    Election of Charles V, June 28.
                    Lutherís disputation with Eck at Leipzig, July, rejects
                    papal supremacy,
                    Lutherís commentary on Galatians, September.

1519-31.      Zwingli peopleís priest at Zurich.

1520.            Death of Raffaelle, April 6.
                    Huttenís Vadiscus and Inspicientes, April.
                    Bull Exsurge Domine, against Luther, June 15.
                    Lutherís Three Primary Treatises, August-October.
                    Lutherís urgent appeal to Leo X, October 13.
                        Luther burns the Bull and the Decretals, December 12.
                    Nicholas Martin preaching in Copenhagen,
                    Bp. Briconnet of Meaux, France, issues mandate vs
                    slothful cures and mendicant Franciscan friars.

1521           Luther at the Diet of Worms, April 16-26
Taken to the Wartburg, May 4.
 Under the Ban of the Empire, May.
 Communion in both kinds at Wittenberg, September.
 Death of Leo X, December 1.
 Melanchthonís Loci Communes Rerum 
Margaret of Valois, sister of Francis I, receives Bible.

1522.           Election of Adrian VI, January 9.
                    The Colloquies of Erasmus published.
                    Luther returns to Wittenberg first Friday in Lent.
                    Issues part I of his Kirchenpostille.
                    Complutensian Greek Testament published.
                    New Testament in French  (at Meaux) October 30

1523.           Letter of Adrian VI to Zwingli. January 23.
                    First public disputation at Zurich, January 29.
                    Death of Adrian VI, September 14.
                    Lutherís translation of the New Testament published.
                    September 21.
                    Election of Clement VII, November 19.
                    Gustavus Vasa elected King of Sweden.
                    Olaf Paterson produces New Testament in Swedish.
                    Louis de Berquin urges reform on his tenants in

1524.           Lutherís collection of hymns.
                    Letter of Erasmus to Henry VIII, September
                    Erasmusís Dc Libero Arbitrio, September 6.
                    Insurrection of the peasants in Germany.
                    New Testament in Danish produced.
                    Entire New Testament in French Meaux.

1525.           Francis I taken prisoner at Pavia, February 24.
                    Twelve Articles of the peasants. March.
                    Luther tries to check the insurrection. April.
                    Death of the Elector, Frederick the Wise, May 5.
                    Luther denounces the rebellious peasants. May.
                    Munzer defeated at Frankenhausen, May 15.
                    executed May 30.
                    Marriage of Luther with Katharina von Bora, 13 June.
                    Lutherís apology to Henry VIII, September 1.
                    Lutherís De Servo Arbitrio, December.
                    Anabaptists in Switzerland
                    Psalms of David produced in French.

1526-29.     Organisation of the Lutheran congregations
Visitation of parishes in Saxony. Martin Gonin represents Waldensians on visits to Reformers.

1526.          First Diet of Speyers, Germany opened June 26.
                   Taussanus freed to preach in Viborg, Denmark.

1527           Sack of Rome, May 6, Clement taken prisoner.
                   Birth of Philip II of Spain. May 2í.
                   Debate on "Unhappy Helvetia" in Berne.
                   Toleration ordered in Denmark.
                   Estates at Westeras order seizure of papist church
                   assets and land in Sweden, June.

1528.          Disputation at Berne between Zwinglians and Romanists
                   January. Berne and St Gall Reformed.

1529.          Vasa Crowned in Sweden, 15 January.
                   Second Diet of Speyers.
                  ďProtestĒ of the minority April 19.
                   Forest Cantons league with Austria  23 April.
                   Lutherís Shorter and Longer Catechisms.
                   Colloquy at Marburg between Zwinglians and
                   Lutherans, October.
                   Basle Reformed/
                   Schaffhausen Reformed.
                   Zwingli proposes a Reformed Confederacy.
                   Swedish Estates at Oerbro decree a Reformed religion.

1530           Diet of Augsburg. June; Charles V presided.
                   Confession of Augsburg. June 25.
                   Recess of Augsburg, November 19.

                   Emissaries of the churches of Provence and Dauphine 
                   to Switzerland and Germany.

1531            League of Schamalkald, February 27.
                    Ferdinand, brother of Charles V, crowned King of the
                    Forest Cantons defeat Zurich at Kappel.
                    Death of Zwingli at Kappel, October 11.

1531-4.        Translation of the Old Testament into German.

1532.            Peace of Nuremberg, July 23.
                     Farel arrives at Geneva, October 4.
                     Waldensian synod at Chamferans ;their Confession of
                     Faith with minor amendments agreed with Reformers.
                     Translation of New Testament into French.

15311532--33        Conversion of Calvin to Protestantism.

1533.            Address of Nicolas Cops, November 1, Flight of

1534.           First edition of the complete German Bible.
                    Anabaptist rising in Munster.
                    Peace of Kadan, June 29.
                    Society of Jesuits founded by Loyola, August 15.
                    Death of Clement VII, September 25.
                    Election of Paul lII, October 13.
                    Final flight of Calvin from Paris., end of July
                    Christopher III elected to throne of Denmark.
                    Du Bellay contacts Bucer and Melanchthon regarding  a
                    chimerical notion of union of Rome and Protestantism
                     planned by Francis I. July.
                     Night of the placards against the mass, 24 Oct.
                     Martyrdoms begin.

1535.           Luther begins to lecture on Genesis.
                    Calvin dedicates the Christianae Religionis
to Francis I, August 23.
                    Fox, Heath, and Barnes reach Wittenberg, December,

1536.          The Christianae Religionis Institutio published.
 The Wittenberg Concord with Bucer and Capito,
  May  22-29.
  Death of Erasmus at Basle, July 12.
  Calvin arrives at Geneva, August 5.

1537            Luther at Schmalkald, February 7-28.

1538.           Calvin and Farel expelled from Geneva, April 23.

1539.           Cardinal Sadoletoís letter to Geneva, March 18.
  Calvinís reply to Sadoleto, September I.
  Death of Duke George of Saxony.
  Norway follows Reform in Denmark.

1539-4.        Revision of the German Bible.

1540.            Bigamy of Philip, Landgrave of Hesse.
                     Society of Jesuits approved by Paul lII,September 27.
                     Bishop Gisser Enerson introduces reform in Iceland.
                     Calvin married Idellete van Buren.

1541.            Colloquy of Ratisbon, April 27-May 22;
                     Charles  V presided.
                     Calvin returns to Geneva, September 13.
                     Clement Marot produces 30 Psalms in metre that can
                      be sung.

1542.            Luther consecrates Nicolas von Amsdorf, Bishop of
   Naumburg, January.
  Third Diet of Speyers opened, February 9.
   Inquisition established at Rome by Paul III, July 21.

1543.            Attempted reforms of Hermann,Archbishop of
                     Marot produces 20 more Psalms in meter.
                     Enlarged Psalter pub. in Geneva, foreword by Calvin.

 1544.         Third edition of Lutherís German Bible.
                    Fourth Diet of Speyers opened by Charles V,
                    February 20.
                    Peace of Crespy, September 18.

1545.           Luther concludes his lectures on Genesis, November 8.
                    End of his University career.
                    Opening of the Council of Trent, December.

1546.          Council of Trent meets for business, January 7.
                   Lutherís last sermon at Wittenberg, January 14.
                   Lutherís last sermon, February 14.
                   Death of Luther, February 18.
                   Diet of Ratisbon.
                   Schmalkaldic War.

1547.          Death of Henry VIII, January 28.
          Death of Francis I, March 31.
          Defeat of the Protestants at Muhlberg, April 24.
          The Council moves from Trent to Bologna.
          Diet of Augsburg.
          Constitution for Reformed church in Denmark.

1548.          The Interim, settlement of Augsburg, May 15.

1549.         Council of Trent (Bologna) prorogued September 17.
Death of Paul III, November 10.
Calvin`s wife died.

1550.         Election of Julius III, February 7.

1551.         Death of Bucer, February 28.
          Council of Trent reopened, May I.

1552.         Council of Trent suspended, April 28.
Death of Maurice of Saxony.

1553.         Death of Edward VI, July 6.
                   Servetus burned at Geneva October 27.

1554.          Marriage of Philip of Spain and Mary Tudor, July.

1555.          Death of Julius III, March 23.
                   Pope Marcellus II reigned 21 days.
                    Election of Paul IV, May 23.
                    Peace of Augsburg, September 25.
                    Abdication of Charles V, October 25.
                    War between Paul IV and Philip II.
                    Death of Ignatius Loyola, July 31.

1557            Edict of Compiegne against Calvinists, July.

1558           Calais recovered from England by France 8 Jan.
                    4000 Protestants march in Paris, 13 May
                    Death of Charles V. September 21.

1559.           Death of Paul IV, August 19.
                     Beza Rector of Geneva Academy.

1560.           Election of Pius IV, January 6.
                     Reformation in Scotland - Presbytery adopted.

1561.           University founded at Douay by Philip II.
                     Coronation child king Charles IX at Rheims,15 May.
                     Colloquy of Poissy ends 13 Oct.

1562.          Council re-opens at Trent, January 18.
 Death of Peter Martyr at Zurich, November 12.
 First Religious war in France 1562-4; continues on/off
 till 1598.

1563.            Peace of Amboise, limited toleration in France.
                     Francoise of Guise, leader of the French Catholics,
                     assassinated by Poltrot de Mere. February 18.
                     Close of the Council of Trent, December 4.

1564.           Calvinís last sermon, February 6
                     Death of Calvin, May 27.

1566            Violent outbreaks in Spanish Netherlands, Philip of
                     Spain exacts retribution on Flemish Protestants.

1570            Treaty of St Germaine,8 Aug. Limited toleration in

1572            Huguenot expedition into northern Netherlands
                     from France decimated by waiting Spanish troops.
                    17 July. Massacre of Huguenots, St Bartholomews Day,
                     24 August.

1574             Charles IX of France dies. 30 May.
                     Henry of Poland becomes Henry III of France,
                     effectively abandons Polish crown.

1576            Peace of Beaulieu, aka La Paix de Monsieur, 6 May.
                     Protestants triumphant; virtual parity with Catholics.

1577             Sixth Religious War in France. 3000 Huguenots
                     massacred at La Charite sur Loire 2 May.

1580            Huguenots revolt in Montauban. Peace of Fleix, 26
                     Nov. earthquake,  possibly cholera, violent storms, and
                     plague kill  between 30,000 and 140,000 people.

1584-88       Catholic Leagues argue over succession in France,
                     in favour of Bourbon (Guise family) against King of
                     Navarre; also agreeing on extirpation of Protestantism.
                     France divided, edge of all out civil war.

1585            Treaty of Nemours 7 July effectively banned
                     Protestantism in France. Navarre excluded from
                     succession. Pope Sixtus V excommunicates him.   
                     Navarre retaliates and excommunicates the Pope.
                     War of the Three Henri`s (Valois, Guise and Navarre).

1587           French Outrage at execution of Mary QoS 18 Feb.
                    Philip  of Spain seeks French (Guise) support for
                    Armada - ports, supplies, troops access. Navarre
                    defeats Guise army at Coutras  (20 October). German
                    troops going to aid Navarre defeated by Guise forces at
                    Vimory (26 Oct) and Auneau (24 November).

1588            Spanish Armada destroyed by English navy, and bad
                     weather. Guise faction control Paris, Henry III forced to
                     flee  to Chartres (May). Act of Union 21 July
                     recognised  League under Guise. Cardinal de Bourbon
                     Henry`s heir. Henry,Duke of Guise assassinated 23
                     Dec. Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine and Guise murdered
                     in prison cell, 24 Dec.

1589            Catherine de Medici, Dowager Queen , died 5 Jan.
                     King  Henry III and Navarre allied. Henry assassinated
                     2 Aug by Jacques Clement, Dominican friar. Navarre 
                     becomes Henry IV.

1593            Henry IV reverts to Catholicism 23 July.

1594            Henry IV returns to Paris,22 March.

1598             Edict of Nantes - peaceful coexistence of Catholics and

1599            Marriage of Henry IV and Margot annulled.

1600             Henry married Maria de Medici of Tuscany - mother of
                     Louis XIII (1601), also Henrietta Maria future wife of
                     Charles I of England.

1610             Henry IV assassinated  by Catholic zealot Francois
                     Ravaillac (May).

 Time Line in England 1485 -1603.

 Political events in Europe (Table) 1493-1621.


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