HISTORICAL LANDMARKS

A TIME LINE FOR THE ULSTER SCOTS AND A BACKCLOTH TO THE EMIGRATION FROM SCOTLAND AND IRELAND 1600 -1840

Year

1603  Irish revolt suppressed by Mountjoy. Accession of James VI  of Scotland  becomes James I of England and Ireland; pursues `Divine Right` policies aiming to be supreme in both State and Church throughout Britain. Fire and Sword of MacGregors; transportation to Ireland for rebels, Border Reivers banished to Ireland (or hanged)

1607 Hamilton and Montgomery Settlements in Co Antrim and Co. Down. First Orr`s in Ulster; James Orr & Janet McClement of Ballyblack, Co Down.

1610 Plantation of Ulster - mainly Scottish Presbyterian settlers -lasted until ca 1630

1612 Episcopacy enforced on the Church in Scotland.

1620 Pilgrim Fathers in America

1624 Richlieu First Minister in France. English driven out of Spice Islands by Dutch

1625 James dies 27 March. Charles I follows same policies of supremacy, and episcopacy in the Church but not as subtle as his father.

1628 Petition of Right by Commons to Charles I. Duke of  Buckingham murdered.

1629 War with France over (1629) and Spain (1630).  Charles I starts his "Personal Rule" by royal prerogative.

1633 Thomas Wentworth, later Earl of Strafford, Lord Deputy of Ireland, persecutes the Presbyterians. Archbishop William Laud seeks changes that are near Catholic practices and adornment.

1636 "Eaglewing" sails for America, put back by storms.

1637  Laud`s Liturgy imposed; Jenny Geddes throws her stool at Dean Hannay in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. Revolution , sometimes called the Second Reformation, begins.

1638 The National Covenant widely signed in Scotland

1639 First Bishops War Charles I comes to terms with Scots.

1640 Second Bishops War. Charles defeated by Scots. Long Parliament begins the abolition of Royal Prerogatives

1641 Massacre of Protestants in Irish Rebellion. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Stafford, impeached and executed. Grand Remonstrance of the House of Commons to Charles I.

1642 Outbreak of English Civil War

1643 Mazarin Chief Minister in France. French beat Spanish at Rocroi. The National League and Covenant secures services of Scots army for the English Parliamentarians.

1644 Marston Moor, decisive battle. North of England lost to Charles. Tippenmuir:  Montrose begins his victorious campaign in Scotland (lasts until Sept 1645)

1645 New Model Army crushed Royalist army at Naseby .Montrose finally loses at Battle of Phillihaugh. Archbishop Laud executed.

1646 Charles I surrenders to Scots.

1647 Charles I handed over to Parliamentarians but seized by the Army. Charles manages to flee to Carisbrooke Castle, on the Isle of Wight. Makes the "Engagement" with Scottish nobles to attack England.

1648 Second Civil War. New Model Army defeats Scots & Royalists. Colonel Pride`s Purge of  Parliament, remodels the legislature in England. The army is clearly in charge.

1649 Charles I executed. England governed as a Commonwealth. Cromwell in Ireland. Scots declare Charles II as king.

1651 Battle of Worcester. Cromwell now controls all Britain. Charles II in exile.

1652 Anglo Dutch War begins (to 1654)

1653 Cromwell dissolves Rump. Becomes Lord Protector. Proposals  to transport Presbyterians from Antrim to Kilkenny and Tipperary but not pursued.

1658 Death of Cromwell 3 September.

1659 Peace of Pyrenees France now greatest power in Western Europe

1660 Restoration of the Monarchy. Charles II returns to England. Takes his revenge on the Presbyterians in Scotland and the non conformists in England. Declared in Dublin 14 May 1660.

1661 Mazarin dies. Louis XIV personal rule "Clarendon Code"  Persecution of Non Conformists in England; 60 ministers ejected in Ulster.

1662 St Bartholomews Day,24 August, ejection of about 2000   nonconformist ministers in England. Nearly 400 ministers ejected in Scotland. Act of Settlement in Ireland  31 July 1662 settles ownership of land for Cromwell`s appointees.

1663 Detested Curates fill vacancies in Scottish churches. Twenty  Mile Act bans ejected ministers from living in or near their old parish.

1664 Second Anglo Dutch War (ends 1667) English take New York Court of High Commission persecutes Presbyterians in Scotland. Star Chamber does the same to English non conformists.

1665 Great Plague of London, 70,000 dead.  Act of Explanation in Ireland makes Cromwellian land owners give up one third of lands.

1666 Great Fire of London. Pentland Rising and battle of Rullion  Green 28 November.

1667 Dutch Fleet in the River Medway (Kent). War of Devolution begins; first of Louis XIV's aggressions.

1669  Assertory Act (supremacy of the King); First Indulgence in  Scotland, divides the Church.

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover - Charles II and Louis XIV. Laws tighten  on non conformists; conventicles banned in Scotland.

1672 Third Anglo Dutch War (ends 1674) William of Orange leads Dutch against French invasion. Indulgences in England and (2nd) in Scotland.

1673 Test Act deprives English Catholics and Non Conformists of public offices.

1675 Swedes defeated by Gt Elector at Fehrbellin. - rise of Prussia. Chain of 13 garrisons in south west Scotland to keep order. Letters of Intercommuning issued against 100 ministers.

1677  Martial Law declared in Scotland 11 December. William of Orange marries Mary, elder daughter of Duke of York (James II).

1678  The `Bond` against conventicles imposed with great resentment. The Highland Host in Ayrshire Jan/Feb. Titus Oates - "Popish Plot" pressure on Charles II

1679 Persecution of  Scottish Covenanters in earnest. Habeus Corpus Act introduced. Archbishop Sharp murdered in May; battles of Drumclog and Bothwell Brig in June. Third Indulgence in Scotland. Crown sinks off Orkney,211 Covenanters drowned.

1680  Declaration of Sanquhar a declaration of war. Richard Cameron  and brother killed at Ayrsmoss.

1681 Oxford Parliament; Charles II overcomes opponents and rules without Parliament. Test Act enforces holders of official posts to take the oath. Act of Succession makes clear that Catholic brother James will succeed to the throne.

1683  Rye House Plot, to assassinate the King and his brother, fails.

1684  Oppression continues in Scotland. James Renwick issues his  Admonitory Vindication; the government introduces the Abjuration Oath and authorises execution by shooting in the presence of two witnesses. The Killing Time begins.

1685  King Charles II dies 6 February. Sedgemoor, Monmouth's rebellion crushed by James II. Earl of Argyll`s rebellion fizzles out for lack of support; he is executed. The Killing Time ends in October.      Revocation of Edict of Nantes - Louis XIV persecutes French Protestants. Richard Talbot created Earl of Tyrconnell

1686  Tyrconnell appointed commander Irish Army 5 June 1686.

1687  Tyrconnell appointed Lord Deputy in Ireland; friction mounts.

1688 Seven Bishops protest against James II policy of toleration. William of Orange  and Mary invited to take the throne.  Scotland joins in that invitation. William lands in England - The Glorious Revolution is achieved.   5 November 1688 William of Orange with 14,000 troops lands in Devon, 7 Dec. Gates of Derry closed by the Apprentice Boys preventing  the entry of the Earl of Antrim`s regiment. 23 December 1688 James flees.

1689  Richard Hamilton defects to Tyrconnel. 3 February William & Mary accept the Bill of Rights and the throne. 12 March James lands at Kinsale, Co. Cork.  14 March 1689 Break of Dromore, Protestants defeated.18 April Derry refuses to submit to James II. Derry relieved after siege of 105 days;  James II fails to subdue Irish Protestants. Killecrankie - death of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, collapse of Highland Rising. 7 May - 18 May 1689 James holds an Irish Parliament. England declares war on France.18 June 1689 - proclamation about use of brass money. 22 June the Restoration land settlement is repealed by Irish Parliament.27 Juy 1689 Enniskillen volunteers defeat James` army at Newtownbutler, Co. Fermanagh.   13 August 1689 Gen. Schomberg lands at Bangor, Co. Down.

1690 12 March 1690 French troops under Gen Lauzon land in Cork. 30 June 1690 Beachy Head - French victory over Anglo Dutch fleet. 1 July 1690 William III defeats James II at The Boyne. 4 July James flees to France from Kinsale. Settlement of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland as the Church`by law established`.

1691 3 October 1691Treaty of Limerick; surrender of James II supporters on conditions which are not met. 22 Dec. Sarsfield and 12,000 troops sails for France.

1692 Massacre of Glencoe - Governments 'lesson' to Highlanders.

1693 National Debt created

1694 Bank of England founded.

1707 Act of Union - English and Scottish Parliaments united.

1710 - 20 Surge in migrations from Ulster to American colonies.

1713 Peace of Utrecht, advantageous peace with France.

1714 Death of Queen Anne. George I to throne - Whig oligarchy rules

1715 Jacobite rising defeated at Preston and Sherriffmuir.

1716 Septennial Act: Parliament prolongs its life from three to seven years

1721 Robert Walpole Prime Minister

1727 First indemnity Act for Non Conformists

1730 -40   Another increase in migration from Ulster to American
                  Colonies.

1729 Methodists begin at Oxford

1739 War of Jenkins Ear between Spain and England

1742 Walpole falls

1743 George II commands army and defeats French at Dettingen.

1745 Jacobite Rebellion under Prince Charles Edward; initial success
          victory at Prestonpans and march to Derby

1746 Culloden; Jacobites destroyed by Cumberland

1750 - 75 More migration to American Colonies, main departure 
                 points Belfast, Londonderry, Larne, Newry and Portpatrick.

1752 Britain adopts new style calendar.

1756 Diplomatic Revolution - alliance Austria and France. Seven Years War begins.Minorca taken by French (Adml.Byng executed 1757). Black Hole of Calcutta suffocation of British prisoners

1757 Pitt Secretary of State great influence. Falls 1761.

1759 Year of Victories - Quebec, Lagos, Minden, Quiberon Bay.

1760 Thurot ( French ) landing at Carrickfergus 21 Feb.

1763 Peace of Paris. British Empire at its height.

1773 Boston Tea Party

1775 Lexington - first battle of American War of Independence.

1776 Declaration of Independence; Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations published.

1777 Saratoga; surrender of British Army under Burgoyne.

1781 Yorktown; surrender of British under Cornwallis to American and French forces.

1782 Battle of the Saints; Rodney's victory saves British West Indies.

1783 Treaty of Versailles. American Independence recognised.         Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister.  Burgoyne returns to Ireland and is available with 20,000 troops if required to deal with threatening demands of the Volunteers. (November 1783)

1787 American Constitution drafted.

1789 George Washington 1st President of USA. French Revolution starts. Bastille stormed 14 July.

1791 Flight of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to Varennes  Formation of Society of United Irishmen.

1792 France becomes a Republic.

1795 Directory established in France. Napoleonic Wars commence in Spain, Italy, Egypt

1797 William Orr of Farranshane, Co Antrim, hanged at Carrickfergus 14 October.

1798 Vinegar Hill. Rebellion in Ireland suppressed. Battle of Antrim 8/9 June decisive .

1800 Parliamentary Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

1803 Insurrection under Robert Emmett in Ireland quickly overcome. Britain again at war with France.

1804 Bonaparte becomes Emperor. Spain declares war on Britain.

1805 Trafalgar, death of Nelson October 21. Death of Pitt 23 January.  Confederation of the Rhine; Napoleon reorganizes Germany, overthrows Prussians at Jena. Declares Great Britain in a state of blockade.

1807 Abolition of Slave Trade in British Empire.

1808 Peninsular War, Spain occupied by France.

1809 Corunna and death of Sir John Moore 16 January.

1812 Napoleons retreat from Moscow

1813 Wellington defeats French at Vitoria 21 June.

1814 Soult defeated by Wellington at Toulouse 10 April. Napoleon abdicates April 11 Louis XVIII king of France.

1815 Napoleon escapes from Elba. Waterloo June 18. Sent to St Helena 16 October (d 5.5.1821) probably poisoned by arsenic compounds in wallpaper of his house.

1820 George III died 29 January.

1824 Repeal of Combination Acts which had forbidden Trades Unions.

1829 Catholic Emancipation Act in Britain.

1830 George IV died 26 June.

1831 First Reform Bill introduced by Lord John Russell.

1832 Reform Bill passed 7 June.

1834 Poor Law Amendment Act tightened up relief in Britain.         Tolpuddle Martyrs victimised to discourage British working class

1835 Municipal Reform Act revises local government. Peel's  `Tamworth Manifesto"  defines aims of the Conservative Party, first use of `socialism'

1836 Peoples Charter states programme of Chartists. Great Trek of the Boers from British rule in South Africa.Texas gains independence from Mexico.

1837 Queen Victoria succeeds to the throne of Great Britain.

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